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Headline data

Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Geographical Area: United Kingdom

Unit of Measurement: Gini Coefficient

Footnote: Ranked by equivalised disposable income, using the modified-OECD scale.

This table provides metadata for the actual indicator available from UK statistics closest to the corresponding global SDG indicator. Please note that even when the global SDG indicator is fully available from UK statistics, this table should be consulted for information on national methodology and other UK-specific metadata information.

Indicator available
Indicator description
Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Unit of measurement

Gini Coefficient


Gini coefficient - a gini coefficient is a statistical measure representing income or wealth inequality, where a higher number means higher levels of inequality. ‘Retired’ refers to anyone living in a retired household. A retired household is one where more than 50% of its income is sourced from people who (i) define themselves as retired and are aged over 50, OR (ii) define themselves as “Sick/Injured”, not seeking work and aged at or above the State Pension Age (SPA).

Available disaggregations

retirement status


Gini coefficient for original income minus Gini coefficient for final income. Original income includes all sources of income from employment, private pensions, investments and other non-government sources. The receipt of cash benefits is then added to original income to estimate gross income, and then direct taxes are subtracted to estimate disposable income. Indirect taxes (for example, VAT, alcohol duties and so on) are further subtracted to form post-tax income, and finally benefits-in-kind (for example, state education, National Health Service) are added to estimate final income.

Other information

The five stages in the redistribution of income are - stage one - household members begin with income from employment, private pensions, investments and other non-government sources; this is referred to as "original income"

stage two - households then receive income from cash benefits; the sum of cash benefits and original income is referred to as "gross income"

stage three - households then pay direct taxes; direct taxes, when subtracted from gross income, are referred to as "disposable income"

stage four - indirect taxes are then paid via expenditure; disposable income minus indirect taxes is referred to as "post-tax income"

stage five - households finally receive a benefit from services (benefits-in-kind); benefits-in-kind plus post-tax income is referred to as "final income"

For more information please look at the associated publciation and the Quality and Methodology Information

Data follows the UN specification for this indicator. This indicator has been identified in collaboration with topic experts.

Data last updated 19 August 2021
Metadata last updated 22 November 2021

This table provides information on metadata for SDG indicators as defined by the UN Statistical Commission. Complete global metadata is provided by the UN Statistics Division.

Indicator name

Redistributive impact of fiscal policy

Target name

Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

Global indicator description
UN designated tier

Tier II

UN custodian agency

The World Bank Group

Link to UN metadata United Nations Sustainable Development Goals metadata for target 10.4 opens in a new window

Office for National Statistics (ONS)



Earliest available data


Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Link to data source Effect of Taxes and Benefits on household income opens in a new window
Release date 23 June 2020
Next release


Statistical classification

National Statistic

Contact details

Other information

Although data is available from 1977 onwards, due to a change in the methodology adjusting for top earners, we only use data from 2001/2002 onwards to report against this indicator.