Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States


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Headline data

Source: Eurostat

Unit of Measurement: Percentage (%)

Footnote: AGRI = Agriculture; FISH = Fish; NAMA = Non-Agricultural Market Access; PAP = Processed Agricultural Products. Please note the y axis does not go to 100% for ease of visualisation.

This table provides metadata for the actual indicator available from UK statistics closest to the corresponding global SDG indicator. Please note that even when the global SDG indicator is fully available from UK statistics, this table should be consulted for information on national methodology and other UK-specific metadata information.

Indicator available

Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States

Indicator description
Geographical coverage
Unit of measurement

Percentage (%)


The average tariffs are reported overall and separately for four main product sectors - AGRI (Agriculture), FISH (Fish), NAMA (Non-Agricultural Market Access), and PAP (Processed Agricultural Products). The breakdown into country group is based on classifications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - OECD DAC list of Developing and Least Developed countries for 2020, and the Small Island Developing States within the OECD DAC list. AVE stands for ad valorem equivalent, defined by the World Trade Organization as a tariff estimated as a percentage of the price. AVEs are necessary to create an equivalent means of calculating tariff related outcomes between goods with different forms of tariffs applied to them (for example, specific tariffs vs ad valorem tariffs).

Available disaggregations

Calculations were performed by topic experts from Department for International Trade and are in line with the methodology outlined in the UN global metadata. Average tariffs are the simple average of AVE (ad valorem equivalent) rates for a given sector imported in the relevant year. For more information refer to the global metadata specified by the United Nations.

Other information

The indicator is focused on Trade in Goods. Imports are assigned to a product sector based on their 6 digit code, rather than the 8 digit code provided on the database. This is because at 8 digit level codes are frequently altered. Therefore, when mapping sectors using the most recently updated tariff schedule, import product codes from prior years will not be captured in instances where they have been updated. To overcome this, sectors are assigned to one 6 digit code only. Other caveats to consider - AVEs are calculated on the basis of trade between the UK and the EU between 2017-2018. This may not fully reflect the trading relationship between the UK and Developing nations, Least Developed nations and Small Island Developing Nations. To this end, the use of EU imports (as opposed to Rest of the World) could yield AVE inflationary effects, as EU imports are generally of higher quantity and higher price than imports from Rest of World. Where no trade has been recorded in 2017-18 between the UK-EU no AVE estimates have been derived for these goods in the sample. Additionally, missing values for both AVE rates and sectors arising from product code alterations affect the sample size. For AVEs, some of these missing values are overcome by 0% allocation where imports belong to regimes U10 (MFN Zero), U20 (GSP Zero) or U30 (Preference Zero). However, since such replacements cannot be made for non-zero tariff rate regimes, samples may contain disproportionate amounts of 0% rate tariffs, in turn, potentially yielding underestimating effects on average tariffs calculations. Data follows the UN specification for this indicator. This indicator has been identified in collaboration with topic experts.

Data last updated 02 February 2022
Metadata last updated 02 February 2022

This table provides information on metadata for SDG indicators as defined by the UN Statistical Commission. Complete global metadata is provided by the UN Statistics Division.

Indicator name

Weighted average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States

Target name

Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Global indicator description
UN designated tier

Tier I

UN custodian agency

World Trade Organization (WTO), The International Trade Centre (ITC), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Link to UN metadata United Nations Sustainable Development Goals metadata for target 17.12 opens in a new window




Earliest available data


Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Link to data source Adjusted EU-EXTRA imports by tariff regime, by CN8 opens in a new window
Release date 16 October 2020
Next release


Statistical classification


Contact details


Other information

The source publication is of monthly frequency, but the calculations for this indicator are done on annual basis