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Indicator 9.5.1 Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP

Sub-categories

Choose categories from the dropdowns below to see different breakdowns of the data. Some will not be available until a higher level is chosen.

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Headline data

Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Geographical Area: United Kingdom

Unit of Measurement: Percentage (%)

Footnote: Prior to 2016 Software development is included in the product group Computer programming and information service activities.

This table provides metadata for the actual indicator available from UK statistics closest to the corresponding global SDG indicator. Please note that even when the global SDG indicator is fully available from UK statistics, this table should be consulted for information on national methodology and other UK-specific metadata information.

Indicator available
Indicator description
Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Unit of measurement

Percentage (%)

Definitions

The OECD Frascati Manual provides the relevant definitions for research and experimental development, gross domestic expenditure on R&D and researchers. Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge - including knowledge of humankind, culture and society - and to devise new applications of available knowledge. Intramural expenditures are all expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the source of funds. Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems and also in the management of the projects concerned.

Available disaggregations
Calculations

(Spending by category / Gross Domestic Product) * 100

Other information

Data follows the UN specification for this indicator. This indicator has been identified in collaboration with topic experts.

Data last updated 2020-10-16: see changes on GitHub opens in a new window
Metadata last updated 2020-10-16: see changes on GitHub opens in a new window

This table provides information on metadata for SDG indicators as defined by the UN Statistical Commission. Complete global metadata is provided by the UN Statistics Division.

Indicator name

Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP

Target name

Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

Global indicator description
UN designated tier

Tier I

UN custodian agency

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Link to UN metadata United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Metadata (PDF 382 KB) opens in a new window

Source 1

Organisation

Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Periodicity

Annual

Earliest available data

2001

Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Link to data source UK gross domestic expenditure on research and development dataset opens in a new window
Release date

14/03/2019

Next release

12/03/2020

Statistical classification

National Statistic

Contact details

RandD@ons.gov.uk

Other information

Prior to 2011 PNP data were estimated. From 2011 data has been collected from a biennial survey with non-survey years being estimated using data from survey years. New higher education financial reporting standards starting on or after 1 January 2015 have resulted in significant changes in how financial performance is reported. This presents difficulties in comparing results from 2015 onwards with historical trends.

Source 2

Organisation

Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Periodicity

Annual

Earliest available data

2005

Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Link to data source UK business enterprise research and development opens in a new window
Release date

21/11/2018

Next release

21/11/2019

Statistical classification

National Statistic

Contact details

RandD@ons.gov.uk

Other information

Source 3

Organisation

Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Periodicity

Annual

Earliest available data

2001

Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Link to data source UK gross domestic expenditure on research and development regional dataset opens in a new window
Release date

14/03/2019

Next release

12/03/2020

Statistical classification

National Statistic

Contact details

RandD@ons.gov.uk

Other information

Prior to 2011 PNP data was estimated. From 2011 data has been collected from a biennial survey with intermediate years being estimated using previous years data.

Source 4

Organisation

Office for National Statistics (ONS)

Periodicity

Annual

Earliest available data

1981

Geographical coverage

United Kingdom

Link to data source R&D BUS - GDP at current prices (Statistical Bulletin) opens in a new window
Release date

21/11/2018

Next release

21/11/2019

Statistical classification

Official Statistic

Contact details

RandD@ons.gov.uk

Other information